Technical Requirements for Main Equipment of Oilfield Drilling

Technical Requirements for Main Equipment of Oilfield Drilling

Oilfield drilling equipment for oil drilling is a set of combined units. Oilfield drilling equipment consists of derricks, winches, traveling blocks, hooks, turntables, drilling pumps, power units, solids control equipment, generator sets, air power and other auxiliary equipment.

1. Rotary system of oilfield drilling equipment

The rotary system of oilfield drilling equipment includes two parts: faucet and turntable. Its main function is to ensure the rotation of drilling tools while continuously transmitting drilling fluid to the bottom of the well through the drilling tools.

(1) Faucet

In some oilfield drilling equipment, the faucet is not only the equipment of the rotating system, but also a part of the circulation system. During drilling, it hangs and bears the full weight of the drill string in the well, and connects the drill string with the hose to form a drilling fluid circulation channel.

(2) Turntable

The turntable is mainly composed of a horizontal shaft, a turntable, a main bearing, etc. Its main function is to drive the drilling tool to rotate and drill, to suspend the drilling tool during the tripping process, to remove the drilling tool thread, and to bear the screw drilling tool during downhole power drilling. reverse torque.

2. Circulation system of oilfield drilling equipment

The circulation system of oilfield drilling equipment mainly includes drilling pump, surface manifold and so on. In downhole power drilling, the circulation system also undertakes the task of transmitting power.

3. Lifting system of oilfield drilling equipment

The hoisting system of oilfield drilling equipment is composed of winch, derrick, crane, traveling block, hook and wire rope.

(1) Winch

The winch is the main equipment that constitutes the hoisting system, the core component of an oilfield drilling equipment, and one of the main working machines of oilfield drilling equipment. Its functions are: to provide several different lifting speeds and weights to meet the needs of tripping and running of drilling tools and casing; hanging drilling tools to send drills and control WOB during drilling; use the cat head mechanism of the drawworks Tightening and unloading of drilling tool threads; as the speed change mechanism and intermediate transmission mechanism of the turntable; when the integral lifting derrick is used, it is used to lift and unload the derrick; when the drawworks has a sand fishing drum, it is also responsible for extracting core barrels, testing oil, etc.; Help to install drill floor equipment and complete other auxiliary work.

(2) Derrick

The derrick is mainly used for placing and hanging cranes, traveling blocks, hooks, lifting rings, hydraulic tongs, hydraulic tensioners, lifting tongs, elevators and other lifting equipment and tools.

(3) Sky train

Generally, multiple pulleys are mounted on the same mandrel or two mandrels with the same axis. Most of the current cranes are pulleys mounted on a mandrel through roller bearings. The diameter of the mandrel is larger, one or both ends of the mandrel have grease fittings, and there are lubricating oil passages in the mandrel.

(4) Tour bus

The shape is streamlined to prevent it from touching the overhangs on the second-floor platform when it is lifted. At the same time, the traveling car should ensure a certain weight, so that it can fall smoothly and vertically when running with no load.

(5) Big hook

The hook is an important equipment of the hoisting system. Its function is to suspend the tap and drilling tool during normal drilling, and to suspend the lifting ring to lift the drilling tool during tripping, so as to complete the auxiliary work such as lifting heavy objects, placing equipment and lifting derricks.

(6) Wire rope for drilling

The steel wire rope used in the swimming system of oilfield drilling equipment is called large rope. It plays the role of suspending the traveling block, hook and transmitting the power of the winch.

4. Transmission and power system of oilfield drilling equipment

(1) Transmission system

The basic function of the transmission system of oilfield drilling equipment is to transmit the power from the power machine to each working machine, namely winches, turntables, drilling pumps, etc. The overall arrangement of the transmission system of oilfield drilling equipment has three forms: unified drive, group drive and individual drive. The shields of each transmission part of the transmission system must be intact and firmly fixed. The railings around the machine room should be fully installed and firmly fixed, and the ladders should be stable and have smooth handrails.

(2) Power equipment

At present, the driving types of oilfield drilling equipment mainly include diesel engine direct drive, diesel engine-hydraulic drive, diesel engine-DC electric drive and industrial grid electric drive.

5. Gas control system of oilfield drilling equipment

The air control system is mainly composed of four parts: the air supply mechanism, the issuing mechanism, the signaling mechanism and the executive mechanism. The main functions are to control the start, stop, speed regulation of the diesel engine, and the synchronizing and parking of the engine; to control the start and stop of the winch turntable and drilling pump; control the drum brake, the operation and stop of the cat head, etc.